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Loan Agreement in Russia

If you want to lend a significant amount of money to someone, it makes sense to enter into a loan agreement, which will help protect you in case of failure to pay back the loan. First, let us discuss what a loan is. It refers to a thing that is borrowed or lent for a while, i. e. it can be not only money, but also some item of property. In the article, we tell about money loan agreements above all.


There is no strict form of this type of agreement, but be sure to include the personal details of the borrower and the lender, the amount of money that was borrowed and, correspondingly, the amount of money expected in return, and the signature date.

In addition, it is also very advisable to specify the payment schedule and a certain penalty in case of failure to repay the debt on time. Unless otherwise stipulated in the agreement, for amounts less than 100 thousand rubles, no penalty will be charged by court; for amounts more than 100 thousand rubles, interest in the amount of the key rate of the Bank of Russia will be imposed. And by default the loan amount must be paid upon written request of the lender, whenever it is.

In the document one can also provide for the method of loan payment, for example, to a certain bank account; and collateral, i. e. an asset that is used as a guarantee of repayment (real estate, vehicles, etc.). And other conditions at you discretion.

The currency of the loan may be any at your choice, but if the borrower and the lender are from different countries or they are both in Russia, but the agreement provides for a foreign currency, it is worth clarifying which bank's rate you will use when transferring funds.


Note that it does not need to be certified by a notary – you can just print it out and sign. But in Russia, this document will not enter into legal force once both parties sign it – it becomes enforceable only after the transfer of the loan. In other words, if the borrower refuses to pay back what is due to you, you will be obliged by the judge to not only provide the agreement, but also prove the fact you transferred the money to that person. In case of bank transfers, it is easy – it is enough to provide a receipt from the bank (it is a good idea to indicate the payment purpose "under agreement No. … dated …"). What about cash? Ask the borrower to write and sign a receipt that he or she was handed this amount of money. The same applies to the borrower if he or she repaid the money – it is strictly recommended to demand the lender to write an acquittance that the debt is cleared (especially if you paid in cash or with a crypto currency), and destroy the agreement itself.


Russian law does not prohibit to sign contracts through the Internet (when one sends their stamped and signed contract, and another prints it out, signs and sends back its scan), but this must be provided for by your agreement.


It depends on whether you can prove that you actually transferred money to another person, and that it was a loan and not a gift or payment for any goods or services. If you send it to your ex-partner or ex-spouse, it would be extremely hard to convince the judge this was not a gift. In addition, with the help of an agreement you will be able to prove a scam if you concluded it with someone you met online (although we advise you to never send any funds to people you got to know, for example, on a dating site and have not seen in person). Receipts are also important – as mentioned, such an agreement can be considered enforceable only after the transfer of the loan. And, important thing, disbursements in cases without an agreement can be much higher than with one.

Feel free to contact us if you need legal assistance:
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